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# AMT/K/1

86 letters, written to AMT's mother, except where otherwise stated. 1 Apr. 1923 - Jan. 1954. Numbered, annotated and dated by Mrs Sara Turing. Mrs Turing's arrangement has been preserved. Included with letters are photostat copies of 2 caricatures by Mrs Turing:- 'The View from Matron's Window' (drawing of AMT ruminating); and 'Hockey or Watching the Daisies Grow' (drawing of AMT looking at a daisy during a hockey match). Both drawings are annotated by Mrs Turing 'sent to Miss Dunwall, matron at Hazelhurst. Date Spring term 1923.'

Paper, K1/1-75, 79, 87 and caricatures fascicled in 3 folders. K1/76a-78, 80-86 in 4 envelopes under the addressees' names (Gandy, Good, Maria and Young). In chronological order. No. 85 missing. Some items in French.

**Keywords:** Hazelhurst, Sussex; Turing, Alan Mathison; Turing, Alan Mathison: King's College, Cambridge

**Provenance:** In June 1960, Mrs Sara Turing (AMT's mother and biographer) presented items relating to her son to King's College, Cambridge.

- AMT/K/1/1
AL, unsigned, to his mother and father, written with a fountain pen which he has invented. Contains diagram of fountain pen. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 1 Apr. 1923. 2 sh.

- AMT/K/1/2
AL, unsigned, to his mother and father, written with his patent ink. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 11 Feb. [1923 or 1924]. 2 sh.

- AMT/K/1/3
ALS to his mother and father, with an idea for a typewriter. Contains a diagram of the typewriter. Hazelhurst, Sussex. [Summer Term 1923]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/4
ALS to his mother and father, on family trees, discovering the height of mountains, and map contours. Contains 2 contour maps. Hazelhurst, Sussex. [Summer Term 1924]. 2 sh.

- AMT/K/1/5
ALS to his mother and father. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 8 June [1924]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/6
ALS to his mother and father, on handwriting. Hazelhurst, Sussex. [May 1924]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/7
ALS to his mother and father, on climbing and map-making. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 5 Oct. [1924]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/8
ALS to his mother and father, on a prospective journey to Belgium, and an amphibious bicycle. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 12 Oct. [1924]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/9
ALS to his mother and father, mentioning chemical transformation of carbon monoxide in the blood. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 21 Sept. 1924. 2 sh.

- AMT/K/1/10
APCS about chess tournament. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 5 Nov. 1924. 1 item

- AMT/K/1/11
APCS. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 19 Feb. 1925. In French. 1 item

- AMT/K/1/12
ALS to his mother and father, with school news. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 1 Feb. 1925. In French. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/13
ALS. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 22 Feb. [1925]. In French. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/14
ALS to his mother and father. AMT wants an earthenware retort; he is trying to teach himself organic chemistry. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 8 Mar. [1925]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/15
ALS to his mother and father, on exceptions to rules in chemistry, and chemical experiments. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 15 Mar. [1925]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/16
ALS giving school news and mentioning charging an accumulator with a stationary bicycle. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 18 Oct. [1925]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/17
ALS to his mother and father; he landed in England on outbreak of General Strike and had to cycle to Sherborne. Sherborne. 5 May [1926]. 2 sh.

- AMT/K/1/18
ALS to his mother and father, on his first days at Sherborne; he has shown samples of his iodine making to the chemistry master. Sherborne. [1926]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/19
ALS on Schrödinger's quantum theory, and referring to a paper which AMT wants to obtain. Mrs Turing notes that the letter refers to a paper by AMT on 'the reaction of sulphites and iodates in acid solution', sent to H.M.I. Sherborne. 20 Nov. 1929. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/20
ALS on the death of his best friend, Christopher Collan Morcom. Sherborne. 16 Feb. 1930. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/21
ALS on trip to Gibraltar; on borrowing telescope, and on a celestial globe he had made. Sherborne. 7 Mar. 1930. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/22
ALS, AMT has just written to Mellor, author of a chemistry book, about an experiment he has done; mentions telescope and perspective drawing. Sherborne. 18 May 1930. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/23
ALS, AMT has produced a theorem which had previously been proved only by Sierpinski. KCC. 31 Jan. 1932. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/24
ALS, AMT is thinking of going to Russia in the vacation; he has joined the 'Anti-War Council'. KCC. 12 May 1933. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/25
ALS on his prize book from Sherborne (probably Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik by J. von Neumann, according to Mrs Turing); also mentions Natural wonders every child should know (the book which opened his eyes to science, according to Mrs Turing). Born and Courant have joined the Mathematics Faculty. KCC. 16 Oct. 1933. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/26
ALS on Anti-War movement's protest against showing of film 'Our Fighting Navy'. KCC. 12 Nov. 1933. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/27
ALS, AMT is to read a paper on Mathematical Philosophy to the Moral Science Club. KCC. 26 Nov. 1933. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/28
ALS, AMT has found a way of setting his clock by the stars; on local bye-election. KCC. 22 Jan. 1934. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/29
ALS on family matters and maths Tripos. KCC. 31 Jan. 1934. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/30
ALS on plans for trip to Austrian Alps in Easter vacation. KCC. [Feb. or Mar. 1934]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/31
ALS, AMT is sending some research to Czüber in Vienna, but is afraid he may be dead. He asks for the Outlook problem for May: 'I must try and get that prize'. KCC. 29 Apr. 1934. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/32
ALS on Tripos results and degree day. KCC. 15 June 1934. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/33
ALS on his pupils. KCC. 20 Jan. 1935. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/34
ALS on a lecture AMS heard at the Marshall Society on 'The Leeds Housing Scheme'. KCC. 10 Feb. 1935. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/35
ALS on a talk by Richmond on Oughtred; AMT has just joined the Cambridge Philosophical Society because of their library. KCC. 3 Mar. 1935. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/36
ALS, AMT has applied for a visiting Fellowship at Princeton for the following year. KCC. 24 May 1935. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/37
ALS on Howarth, a mathematical Fellow at King's, and on Ibsen. KCC. 1 Mar. [1936]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/38
ALS, AMT has seen Newman, who is not yet able to attend to AMT's theory (on 'Computable Numbers', according to Mrs Turing), but has examined AMT's note for C.R. (Comptes Rendues, according to Mrs Turing). KCC. 4 May [1936]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/39
ALS, on sailing holiday. On KCC notepaper, but Mrs Turing notes: 'Probably written from Itchenor, Sussex.' 1 July [n.y.]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/40
ALS, AMT has just got his main paper (on 'Computable Numbers', according to Mrs Turing) ready and sent in; correspondence about the Comptes Rendues has gone astray, and Alonzo Church has just published a paper on the same subject in America, though Mr Newman and AMT think the method sufficiently different to warrant publication of AMT's paper too. AC is at Princeton, so AMT has decided definitely about going there. KCC. 29 May [1936]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/41
ALS, on finding ship's position with a sextant: AMT notes at letter head '41°20'N 62°W. On paper of Cunard White Star 'Berengaria'. 28 Sept. 1936. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/42
ALS, first letter from Princeton, describing mathematicians: J. v. Neumann, Weyl, Courant, Hardy, Einstein, Lefschetz, and Church, whom AMT has seen; AMT's paper may help Church to carry out a programme of work he has in mind. 'I don't know how much I shall have to do with this programme of his, as I am now developing the theory in a slightly different direction, and shall probably start writing a paper on it in a month or two. After that I may write a book.' The Graduate College, Princeton. 6 Oct. [1936]. 3 sh.

- AMT/K/1/43
ALS on 'a possible application of the kind of thing I am working on at present. It answers the question "What is the most general kind of code or cipher possible", and ... enables one to construct a lot of particular and interesting codes. One of them is pretty well impossible to decode without the key and very quick to encode. I expect I could sell them to H.M. Government for quite a substantial sum, but am rather doubtful about the morality of such things.' Hardy is in Princeton for the term. Graduate College, Princeton. 14 Oct. [1936]. 2 sh.

- AMT/K/1/44
ALS; Church has suggested that AMT give a lecture to the Mathematical Club on Computable Numbers; AMT is also working on theory of groups. Graduate College, Princeton. 3 Nov. [1936]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/45
ALS; hockey against Vassar. Graduate College, Princeton. 11 Nov. [1936]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/46
ALS; on hockey, and Mrs Simpson. Graduate College, Princeton. 22 Nov. [1936]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/47
ALS; AMT is giving his paper to the Maths Club next day. Graduate College, Princeton. 1 Dec. [1936]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/48
ALS; on reprints (of 'On Computable Numbers') and the King's marriage. Graduate College, Princeton. 3 Dec. [1936]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/49
ALS; on Christmas presents. Graduate College, Princeton. [Dec. 1936]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/50
ALS on King's abdication. Graduate College, Princeton. 11 Dec. [1936]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/51
ALS on skiing holiday, King's abdication, and poor attendance at his Maths Club lecture. Graduate College, Princeton. 1 Jan. [1937]. 2 sh.

- AMT/K/1/52
ALS on family news. Graduate College, Princeton. 12 Jan. [1937]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/53
ALS; AMT is about to send his paper on group theory to L.M.S. or to Annals of Mathematics (Princeton mathematical journal); on New Statesman and Nation competition 'Looking Glass Zoo', set by Eddington and answered by Champernowne. Graduate College, Princeton. 27 Jan. 1937. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/54
ALS; on people to receive reprints (of 'On Computable Numbers' according to Mrs Turing); correct way to address envelope etc. to Bertrand Russell. Graduate College, Princeton. 11 Feb. [1937]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/55
ALS on Fellowship election at King's College. On paper of Graduate College, Princeton; AMT says the letter was sent by air mail from Amsterdam. 15 Mar. 1937. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/56
ALS; Eisenhart (Dean of Graduate College) is pressing AMT to stay another year at Princeton; AMT thinks he will return to England. Braithwaite has asked for a reprint (of 'On Computable Numbers' according to Mrs Turing), but AMT is disappointed at its reception in Princeton. Graduate College, Princeton. 22 Feb. [1937]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/57
ALS on maths lectureships and elections to Fellowships at King's. AMT is now working out some new ideas in logic. Graduate College, Princeton. 29 Mar. [1937]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/58
ALS on tennis and hockey. Graduate College, Princeton. 18 Apr. [1937]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/59
ALS; AMT has decided to stay another year in Princeton. Graduate College, Princeton. 19 May [1937]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/60
ALS on family visits in USA. Graduate College, Princeton. 15 June [1937]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/61
ALS; AMT has returned to USA with Will Jones; he has had paper to referee from L.M.S. Graduate College, Princeton. 4 Oct. [1937]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/62
ALS; the paper AMT refereed was hopeless; he has begun work on his Ph.D. thesis; Scholz of Münster has sent him a reprint of a German translation of his L.M.S paper. Graduate College, Princeton. 19 Oct. [1937]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/63
ALS on hockey matches and family news. Graduate College, Princeton. 2 Nov. [1937]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/64
ALS; AMT has been asked by Cambridge Maths Faculty to examine the Ph.D. thesis of the candidate whose paper he refereed for L.M.S.; he has decided, after hesitation, to take it on. Graduate College, Princeton. 23 Nov. 1937. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/65
ALS on visits with Americans at Christmas. Two papers by AMT have appeared in Journal of Symbolic Logic. Graduate College, Princeton. [Received 14 Jan. 1938]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/66
ALS on a performance of Murder in the Cathedral, and on drawings to illustrate the 4

^{th}dimension. Includes a drawing of a 4 dimensional cube on an inserted sh. Graduate College, Princeton. 7 Mar. [1938]. 2 sh.- AMT/K/1/67
ALS; AMT's King's Fellowship has been renewed; he is unlikely to take a job in USA unless England is at war before July; on visit to St. John's College, Annapolis with Will Jones, and on the syllabus there. Graduate College, Princeton. 12 Apr. [1938]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/68
ALS on Gilbert and Sullivan; on AMT's Ph.D. thesis, which has greatly expanded under Church's suggestions, and has just been accepted; AMT was offered a job as Neumann's assistant, but has refused and will return to Cambridge. Graduate College, Princeton. 17 May [1938]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/69
ALS on his lectures. KCC. 23 Jan. [1939]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/70
ALS on climbing in Snowdonia. Onell, High St., Portmadoc. 31 Aug. 1941. 2 sh.

- AMT/K/1/71
ALS; AMT has been back to Cambridge and met Champernowne; bombing at Bletchley; and on the Austrian refugee whom AMT sponsored. Crown Inn, Shenley Brook End, Bletchley, Bucks. 1 Nov. [probably 1940x44, according to Mrs Turing]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/72
ALS on running. 78 High St., Hampton. [c. June 1946, according to Mrs Turing]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/73
ALS about holiday in the lakes with Champernowne. The Crown, Bletchley. 23 Dec. [1944]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/74
ALS on sports meeting. Cunard White Star RMS 'Queen Elizabeth'. 27 Dec. [1946]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/75
ALS on parcels from America, and running. No address. n.d. (Mrs Turing notes, '1947 after return from U.S.A.'). 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/76a
TS copy of letter from I.J. Good to AMT, beginning 'Dear Prof' and signed 'Jack'. IJG asks about the number of neurons in the brain; he understands that by next Oct. he and AMT will have swapped towns, 'Presumably you won't have much lecturing to do in M/C'. 131 Cheviot Gdns, NW2. 25 July 1948. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/76b
TS copy of letter from AMT to I.J. Good, beginning 'Dear Jack', and signed 'Yours Prof'; AMT has repeatedly looked in books on neurology for the number IJG asked about, without success. AMT's own estimate is 3.10

^{8}< N < 3.10^{9}. It is based on the diagram p.201 of the latest Starling. Many physiologists give answers from 10^{7}to 10^{11}. KCC. [c. 28 July 1948]. 1 sh.- AMT/K/1/77
TS copy of letter from AMT to I.J. Good, signed 'Yours, Prof.'; AMT is glad his estimate of number of neurons is not too essentially wrong; AMT is about to make a record of the chess machine designed by himself and Champernowne, with a view to playing the Shaun-Michie machine. On 'thinking in analogies', AMT thinks of the brain as having analogies forced on it by its own limitations. AMT thinks IJG's identity can be proved by Poisson's summation formula or by contour integration. KCC. 18 Sept. [1948]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/78
TS copy of letter from AMT to Professor J.Z. Young, F.R.S.; on brain structure and the storage capacity of the brain; and on AMT's current work, a mathematical theory of embryology, which may give satisfactory explanations of 1) Gastrulation 2) Polygonally symmetrical structures 3) Leaf arrangement 4) Colour patterns on animals 5) Patterns on nearly spherical structures such as some Radiolaria . This work is related to his work on brain structure, which has to be achieved by the genetical embryological mechanism. Hollymeade, Adlington Rd., Wilmslow. 8 Feb. 1951. 2 sh.

- AMT/K/1/79
TLS on family finance; mentions a broadcast by AMT. Wilmslow. 19 Jan. [1952]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/80
TS copy of letter from AMT to R.O. Gandy, whose Ph.D. thesis was supervised by AMT. AMT discusses ROG's Eddington essay; the word 'structure' still causes worries; Bourbaki are unsatisfactory, as they seem to assume that 'A defines a structure on B' is synonymous with 'A is a structure on B'. AMT mentions a discussion on machines (probably a broadcast discussion with Prof. Sir Geoffrey Jefferson, Prof. M.H.A. Newman and R.B. Braithwaite, according to Mrs Turing). Wilmslow. [Early 1952]. 1 sh.

See D/4 for original

- AMT/K/1/81
TS copy of part of a letter from AMT to R.O. Gandy on ROG's Ph.D. thesis. Wilmslow. 23 Nov. 1952. 1 sh.

See D/4 for original

- AMT/K/1/82
TS copy of letter from AMT to R.O. Gandy on ROG's Ph.D. thesis, and on the 'Unity of Science' essay. No address. [Early 1953]. 1 sh.

See D/4 for original

- AMT/K/1/83
TS copy of letter from AMT to 'Maria', a child aged 6, sent express, suggesting puzzles for her to do on the train. AMT will be at Club Méditerrané, Ipsos-Corfu, Greece. Includes 3 diagrams of puzzles. Hollymeade, Adlington Road, Wilmslow. [p.m. 10 May 1953]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/84
TS copy of letter from AMT to R.O. Gandy; AMT is not surprised by unsatisfactory response of ROG's audience regarding notation; AMT got a similar reception about 3 or 4 years ago when he talked about deduction theorem at Bristol. Wilmslow. [1953]. 1 sh.

See D/4 for original

- AMT/K/1/85
Not present. A note about the return of the letters to Mrs Turing for copying and presentation to Sherborne School, 27 Apr. 1966, mentions 86 letters. No. 85 may have been omitted by Mrs Turing from her original gift, or she may have mis-numbered the letters

- AMT/K/1/86
Xerox of ALS from AMT to R.O. Gandy; on ROG's 'Gödel stuff'. AMT discusses ROG's attempt to get round Gödel's arguments, and concludes 'So one must respect Gödel's difficulties unless one includes some method of proof which does not lend itself to this sort of formulation.' AMT discusses '61 proofs of a formula of Gandy'. He can do the rainbow problem successfully for sound, but total failure for electricity. Wilmslow. [? 1954, according to ROG]. 2 sh.

See D/4 for original

- AMT/K/1/87
ALS calming his mother's worries about an unclassified document which he had left at her house. No address. [Jan. 1954]. 1 sh.

- AMT/K/1/88
Photostat copy of caricature by Mrs. Turing entitled, 'Hockey or Watching the Daisies Grow'. (A drawing of AMT looking at a daisy during a hockey match.)

- AMT/K/1/89
Photostat copy of caricature by Mrs. Turing entitled, 'The View from Matron's Window'. (A drawing of AMT ruminating.)